Installing vue-cli

vue-test-utils is the official testing library for Vue, and will be used throughout the guide. It runs in both a browser and Node.js environment, and works with any test runner. We will be running our tests in a Node.js environment throughout this guide.

vue-cli is the easiest way to get started. It will set up a project, as well as configure Jest, a popular testing framework. Install it by running:

yarn global add @vue/cli

or with npm:

npm install -g @vue/cli

Create a new project by running vue create [project-name]. Choose "Manually select features" and "Unit Testing", and "Jest" for the test runner.

Once the installation finishes, cd into the project and run yarn test:unit. If everything went well, you should see:

 PASS  tests/unit/HelloWorld.spec.js
  HelloWorld.vue
    ✓ renders props.msg when passed (26ms)

Test Suites: 1 passed, 1 total
Tests:       1 passed, 1 total
Snapshots:   0 total
Time:        2.074s

Congratulations, you just ran your first passing test!

Writing your first test

We ran an existing test that came with the project. Let's get our hands dirty, writing our own component, and a test. Traditionally when doing TDD, you write the failing test first, then implement the code which allows the test to pass. For now, we will write the component first.

We don't need src/components/HelloWorld.vue or tests/unit/HelloWorld.spec.js anymore, so you can delete those.

Creating the Greeting component

Create a Greeting.vue file in src/components. Inside Greeting.vue, add the following:

<template>
  <div>
    {{ greeting }}
  </div>
</template>

<script>
export default {
  name: "Greeting",

  data() {
    return {
      greeting: "Vue and TDD"
    }
  }
}
</script>

Writing the test

Greeting has only one responsibility - to render the greeting value. The strategy will be:

  1. render the component with mount
  2. assert that the component's text contains "Vue and TDD"

Create a Greeting.spec.js inside tests/unit. Inside, import Greeting.vue, as well as mount, and add the outline of the test:

import { mount } from '@vue/test-utils'
import Greeting from '@/components/Greeting.vue'

describe('Greeting.vue', () => {
  it('renders a greeting', () => {

  })
})

There are different syntaxes used for TDD, we will use the commonly seen describe and it syntax that comes with Jest. describe generally outlines what the test is about, in this case Greeting.vue. it represents a single piece of responsibility that the subject of the test should fulfill. As we add more features to the component, we add more it blocks.

Now we should render the component with mount. The standard practice is to assign the component to a variable called wrapper. We will also print the output, to make sure everything is running correctly:

const wrapper = mount(Greeting)

console.log(wrapper.html())

Running the test

Run the test by typing yarn test:unit into your terminal. Any file in the tests directory ending with .spec.js is automatically executed. If everything went well, you should see:

PASS  tests/unit/Greeting.spec.js
Greeting.vue
  ✓ renders a greeting (27ms)

console.log tests/unit/Greeting.spec.js:7
  <div>
    Vue and TDD
  </div>

We can see the markup is correct, and the test passes. The test is passing because there was no failure - this test can never fail, so it is not very useful yet. Even if we change Greeting.vue and delete the greeting from the template, it will still pass. Let's change that.

Making assertions

We need to make an assertion to ensure the component is behaving correctly. We can do that using Jest's expect API. It looks like this: expect(result).to [matcher] (actual).

Matchers are methods to compare values and objects. For example:

expect(1).toBe(1)

A full list of matchers is available in the Jest documentation. vue-test-utils doesn't include any matchers - the ones Jest provides are more than enough. We want to compare the text from Greeting. We could write:

expect(wrapper.html().includes("Vue and TDD")).toBe(true)

but vue-test-utils has an even better way to get the markup - wrapper.text. Let's finish the test off:

import { mount } from '@vue/test-utils'
import Greeting from '@/components/Greeting.vue'

describe('Greeting.vue', () => {
  it('renders a greeting', () => {
    const wrapper = mount(Greeting)

    expect(wrapper.text()).toMatch("Vue and TDD")
  })
})

We don't need the console.log anymore, so you can delete that. Run the tests with yarn unit:test, and if everything went well you should get:

PASS  tests/unit/Greeting.spec.js
Greeting.vue
  ✓ renders a greeting (15ms)

Test Suites: 1 passed, 1 total
Tests:       1 passed, 1 total
Snapshots:   0 total
Time:        1.477s, estimated 2s

Looking good. But you should always see a test fail, then pass, to make sure it's really working. In traditional TDD, you would write the test before the actual implementation, see it fail, then use the failing errors to guide your code. Let's make sure this test is really working. Update Greeting.vue:

<template>
  <div>
    {{ greeting }}
  </div>
</template>

<script>
export default {
  name: "Greeting",

  data() {
    return {
      greeting: "Vue without TDD"
    }
  }
}
</script>

And now run the test with yarn test:unit:

FAIL  tests/unit/Greeting.spec.js
Greeting.vue
  ✕ renders a greeting (24ms)

● Greeting.vue › renders a greeting

  expect(received).toMatch(expected)

  Expected value to match:
    "Vue and TDD"
  Received:
    "Vue without TDD"

     6 |     const wrapper = mount(Greeting)
     7 |
  >  8 |     expect(wrapper.text()).toMatch("Vue and TDD")
       |                            ^
     9 |   })
    10 | })
    11 |

    at Object.<anonymous> (tests/unit/Greeting.spec.js:8:28)

Jest gives us good feedback. We can see the expected and actual result, as well as on which line the expectation failed. The test did fail, as expected. Revert Greeting.vue and make sure the test is passing again.

Next we will look at the two methods vue-test-utils provides to render components: mount and shallowMount.

Last Updated: 10/21/2018, 2:01:33 PM